The Scriptum.cz web archive provides access to various non-commercial and online Czech exile and samizdat periodicals. This is a unique collection of works that are often not accessible anywhere and are constantly being refilled.
The bequest of Rusko Matulić, an American engineer and writer of Yugoslav origin, is held in the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. The collection largely encompasses Matulić's activities as a political émigré in the United States of America, when he mainly dealt with the publication of the bi-monthly bulletin of the Committee Aid to Democratic Dissidents in Yugoslavia(CADDY). The bulletin and organization acted as a part of the Democratic International, established in New York in 1979. Mihajlo Mihajlov, one of the most prominent Yugoslav dissidents, was a member and the main initiator of launching the CADDY organization and its bulletin. Rusko Matulić was Mihajlov's main collaborator in the overall CADDY project.
Drábek, Jaroslav. A Contribution to the History of the Be...
Drábek, Jaroslav. A Contribution to the History of the Beginning of the Czechoslovak Resistance (in Czech), 1960. Manuscript
Jaroslav Drábek Jr (1901–1996), a Czech lawyer, journalist and member of the Czechoslovak resistance movement during the Second World War, was the author of a lecture entitled “A Contribution to the History of the Beginning of the Czechoslovak Resistance”, which was presented on 9 December 1960 as part of the series “Contributions to the Development of the Idea of the Czechoslovak State” organized by the Czechoslovak Society for Arts and Science. The 33-page article includes descriptions of Drábek’s memories of his resistance activities, his escapes, interrogations, the Gestapo, and his colleagues in exile in London. Drábek also described other experiences from the postwar period, such as the arrest and torture of his colleague after the Communist coup. After February 1948, Drábek emigrated from Czechoslovakia. The document also includes a letter from the Czech scientist and prominent member of the anti-Nazi resistance, Professor Vladimír Krajina, who also emigrated after 1948. In his letter, Krajina mentions the fact that it was Jaroslav Drábek Jr who persuaded him to be active in the resistance during the Second World War.
Cu referire la relațiile cetățenilor români cu unele post...
Cu referire la relațiile cetățenilor români cu unele posturi de radio capitaliste. In Securitatea, 41 (1978): 38-49. Articol
Securitatea was a quarterly aimed at improving the training of Securitate operative personnel. Its articles were written by Securitate officers for Securitate officers and thus they touched upon practical problems faced during their specific mission of preventing and neutralising any actions that potentially threatened the communist regime. Among the many dangers that were outlined in the pages of the quarterly as undermining “state security” were foreign radio stations, and especially Radio Free Europe (RFE). The article chosen as a featured item of the collection presents under the title “Cu referire la relațiile cetățenilor români cu unele posturi de radio capitaliste” (About the relations of Romanian citizens with some capitalist radio stations) the perspective of the Securitate upon the activity of RFE and evaluates its contribution in providing an alternative source of information for Romanians. In the absence of underground publications, RFE represented the main source of alternative information in communist Romania. Thus, the Securitate regarded RFE and contacts between Romanian citizens and employees of the Romanian desk of this radio station as dangerous to the communist regime. Accordingly, the entire article focuses on revealing how RFE allegedly acts in order to undermine “state security.” Starting from the premise that RFE is the locus “of espionage, ideological diversion, and hostile propaganda,” the anonymous author traces the connection between this radio station and the American espionage machine, namely the CIA. The Central Intelligence Agency was credited with financing RFE and setting its agenda even after the American Congress officially took responsibility for financially supporting its functioning. The control of the CIA over RFE was underlined once again when discussing its organisation. The two management structures in the United States and Europe were allegedly infiltrated by CIA agents who engaged the radio station in their “ungentlemanly” war against communist countries and used it to collect information about them. As a result, the CIA used the microphone of RFE to proffer slanders and shamefully distort the realities of the communist countries, according to the Securitate’s interpretation of the broadcasting of news and other political programmes by this radio station. Even worse from the point of view of the Securitate was that people travelling abroad were an easy prey for “agents” working at the Romanian desk of RFE. After underlining the connection between its director, deputy director, and programme producers with the CIA, the article describes how they allegedly succeeded in manipulating Romanian tourists in order to collect valuable information about the country, its leadership, and the impact of its social and economic policies on the mood of the population. In other cases, they even managed to trick their “victims” and persuade them to emigrate. The narrative of blaming RFE for these “unpatriotic” deeds was an ideologically convenient explanation for the fact that the great majority of Romanians listened to and trusted RFE, in spite of the fact that this might have caused problems. At the same time, such a narrative was meant to highlight the vital role played by the Securitate as a guardian of the communist regime in Romania.
Articol din FAZ despre o Scrisoare a lui Victor Frunză către Nicolae Ceaușescu, în germană, august 1978
This letter is an important document for the history of dissidence in Romania, being a proof of the open opposition of a Romanian living in the country to the dictatorship of Nicolae Ceaușescu. In this case the writer was Victor Frunză, a Romanian writer and journalist, who in 1978 went as tourist to Paris. On this occasion, he contacted a representative of the Reuters Agency, to whom he handed a letter addressed to Nicolae Ceaușescu. He wrote the text of the letter in Romania and memorised its content in order not to carry it and be discovered at customs control. So he rewrote it from memory after he arrived in France. The material in question was published by Frankfurter Algemeine Zeitung and broadcast by Radio Free Europe. Also, a copy of the letter was sent by Victor Frunză, by post, to Nicolae Ceaușescu. Essentially, his letter was a criticism of Ceausescu's dictatorship: "I want to manifest deep disagreement with the revival of the cult of personality, today is an improved version, decorated with the national flag." Frunză's conclusion was that "the type of socialist democracy in Romania is nothing more than a parody of discussions through speeches, even if these are not written by those who speak them." The document is in the IICCMER archive and is an original copy of the German letter published in 1978 in Frankfurter Algemeine Zeitung. The letter was subsequently published by Victor Frunză in Romanian, at the publishing house he founded after the emigration, in the pages of the book For Human Rights in Romania (1982). The second edition of this volume appeared in 1990, in Bucharest, under the aegis of Victor Frunză Publishing House.
A gyűjtemény egyike Magyarország legfontosabb szamizdat gyűjteményeinek. A Múzeum Könyvtára és Levéltára az 1980-as években kezdte el szisztematikusan gyűjteni a szamizdat anyagokat. Az anyagokat zár alatt tartották, s a nagyközönség számára hozzáférhetetlenek voltak 1989-ig. A rendszerváltás után a Múzeum volt az első olyan intézmény, amely a magyarországi szamizdatról kiállítást rendezett.
Jan Čep Collection of the Czechoslovak Documentation Centre
Jan Čep Collection of the Czechoslovak Documentation Centre
Jan Čep (1902-1974) was one of the most prominent representatives of modern Czech prose. His collection contains his manuscripts of radio reflections, which he wrote for Czechoslovak Radio Free Europe. Through his reflections, he tried to face totalitarianism and spiritually strengthen people "at home".
ОРИГІНАЛЬНИЙ ПЛАКАТ ТРЕТЬОГО УНІВЕРСАЛУ, 7 ЛИСТОПАДА 1917...
ОРИГІНАЛЬНИЙ ПЛАКАТ ТРЕТЬОГО УНІВЕРСАЛУ, 7 ЛИСТОПАДА 1917 РОКУ.
The events that transpired alongside the fall of the Romanov monarchy in February 1917, the takeover of the Winter Palace by the Bolsheviks in October 1917, and the dissolution of the Constitutional Assembly in January 1918 are immensely significant for understanding Ukrainian history and cultural opposition to communism. During that year of upheaval, many divergent visions for the future were articulated throughout the Russian Empire. In the Imperial Southwest, the Bolsheviks battled monarchists, nationalists, socialists, greens and anarchists over how to move forward during and after the collapse of empire.
The Ukrainian Museum-Archives has in its possession an original broadside of the Third Universal, issued by the Central Rada on November 20, 1917, in the four major languages used in the Imperial Southwest—Ukrainian, Russian, Polish and Yiddish. This document is reflective of efforts by the Central Rada to appeal to various communities living on the territory, while negotiating with the Provisional Government for greater autonomy. As historian George Liber notes, the first two proclamations of Rada did not define the borders of Ukraine, but the Third Universal asserted that the nine provinces in the Imperial Southwest with Ukrainian majorities belonged to the Ukrainian National (or People’s) Republic. The document also claimed parts of Kursk, Kholm/Chelm and Voronezh provinces, where Ukrainians also constituted the majority. The Central Rada also pledged to defend the interests of all national groups living in these territories and articulated a law protecting personal and national autonomy for Russians, Poles, Jews and others.
Shortly after this, the UNR established diplomatic ties with a number of European countries and even the United States. Britain and France tried to persuade the UNR leadership to side with them against the Central Powers, which they refused as they were determined to stay neutral. The Soviet Russian Republic initially recognized the UNR, but this was short-lived as the Red Army soon moved in from the north and east. This prompted the Rada to issue the Fourth Universal on January 25, 1918, which declared independence of the UNR as defined by the Third Universal. This made the push for greater autonomy within the context of empire a war of nationalist secession. (Liber, 62-63)
These early conflicts helped shape Soviet Ukraine’s relationship to Moscow for decades to come. In fact, Ukraine’s cultural, political and economic leadership struggled to define the parameters of engagement. Figures who were at the forefront of creating Soviet culture in the political and creative domains had to contest with the complex legacies of the Civil War of 1917-1922, which were never really fully resolved. Republican officials in particular (first in Kharkiv and later Kyiv) found it difficult to strike the right balance between autonomy and central control, regularly finding themselves on the wrong side of cultural policy after major shift in the priorities of Moscow.
Karl Laantee collection at the Estonian Cultural History ...
Karl Laantee collection at the Estonian Cultural History Archives
The Karl Laantee collection at the Estonian Cultural History Archive is part of the large archival legacy of Karl Laantee, an émigré Estonian religious activist, and announcer with the Voice of America radio station.
КОЖУХ, ОВЕЧА БЕЗРУКАВКА З КОЛЕКЦІЇ ГНАТЮКА, ХІХ-ТЕ–ПОЧАТО...
Mihajlov, Mihajlo. “Moscow Summer” (in English), 1965. Manuscript
The manuscript of Mihajlov's travels, “Moscow Summer,” written in English is in the box 28. The text was the fruit of Mihajlov's visit to the Soviet Union in the summer months of 1964. Mihajlov supported Nikita Khrushchev's reforms and the program of de-Stalinisation, and he criticized the changes in the Soviet leadership after Kruschev’s fall. This criticism alarmed those in charge of Yugoslavia’s foreign policy, since it could once more undermine Soviet-Yugoslav relations, which had normalized in the mid-1950s.
Referring to the publication of the first two essays of this book, Tito himself called out Mihajlov in February 1965 as a result of pressure from the Soviet ambassador due to his criticism of the new political course following the fall of Khrushchev in the autumn of 1964. Despite censorship of Mihajlov’s essays in Yugoslavia, American politicians and the public were interested in Mihajlov's case precisely because of his stance on the Soviet Union during the political upheavals in the upper echelons of the Soviet party in those years.
Ivan Medek Collection of the Czechoslovak Documentation C...
Sbírka české exilové monografie a časopisy v Libri prohibiti
The Libri Prohibiti’s collection of Czech exile monographs and periodicals contains over 8100 publications including the complete works of many publishers. More than 940 titles of Czechoslovak exile periodicals, some of them complete editions, are part of this collection as well.
Everyday life East. A digital guide to everyday life in t...
Everyday life East. A digital guide to everyday life in the GDR
This digital guide to everyday life in the GDR is a project initiated in 2017 by Kooperative Berlin, a Berlin-based media association, in collaboration with the Federal Foundation for the Reappraisal of the SED Dictatorship. The aim of the project is to create a digital guide to everyday life in the GDR by focusing on various places throughout the GDR. The project sheds light on a myriad of locations associated with activities tolerated or banned by the regime, which eventually impacted everyday life. The interactive platform was created with the purpose of providing tourists a tool to guide them to lesser-known places, which nevertheless provide broad insights into the stories and histories which made up everyday life in the GDR.
Ivan Blatný Collection at the Museum of Czech Literature
Peroutka, Ferdinand. Zahajovací projev v Rádiu Svobodná Evropa, 1951. Strojopis
Ferdinand Peroutka, who represented the democratic past of Czechoslovakia, and mainly the First Czechoslovak Republic, became the director of the Czechoslovak section of Radio Free Europe (RFE) in New York on 6 April 1950. The Czechoslovak service of the RFE began its regular broadcasting from Munich on 1 May 1951 with the famous phrase “This is the voice of Free Czechoslovakia, Radio Free Europe.” One of the first speakers was also Ferdinand Peroutka, who stated, besides other things: “One magazine would mean little in a country where freedom reigns. But one free magazine, one radio station in a dictatorial regime – that is a revolution, because such a system is based on the fact that only the government can speak and nobody can answer back, that anyone can be charged, but nobody can defend themselves. However, once even a fraction of freedom enters that rigid and artificial system, from anywhere, once it is again possible to set argument against argument, once it is no longer possible to act without criticism, once there is a place to call untruths into question, then this whole proud system quavers.”
The Literary Archives of the Museum of Czech Literature possesses a mimeograph copy of the typescript of this speech.
Cs. Szabó Lászlónak számos barátja volt a magyar írók és költők között 1949-es emigrációja előtt és után. Igen nagyra becsülte Illyés Gyulát, a 20. századi magyar irodalom egyik legfontosabb alkotóját. 1967-ben dedikálta Illyés az eredetileg 1936-ban magyarul megjelent "Puszták népe" című kötetének angol fordítását Cs. Szabónak. A könyv Illyés egyik legfontosabb alkotása, szabatos társadalomrajz, emellett önéletrajz is. A műben Illyés saját társadalmi közegének, a mezőföldi parasztságnak állított emléket. A szociográfiában egyszerre tudta bemutatni a szegény emberek nyomorúságát és emberségét is Illyés.
Fejtő Ferenc Könyvtára egy eredeti demokratikus baloldali gondolkodó gyűjteménye. A Könyvtár egyedülálló lenyomata a kelet-európai jobboldali tekintélyelvűség, a szocialista diktatúra és a nyugat-európai baloldali romantika kritikájának. A mindenkori európai szellemi elittel szoros kapcsolatokat ápoló Fejtó 1938-ban hagyta el Magyarországot és költözött Franciaországba. A szabadságot nélkülöző Kelet-Európa sorsa iránti mély elköteleződése azonban haláláig megmaradt.
Čengić, Aziz. Nacionalna politika Komunističke partije Ju...
Zbirka dokumenata Službe državne sigurnosti za Hrvatsku o vjerskim zajednicama
The collection belongs to the group of the most relevant archival resources for researching the communist regime’s relationship with and repression against religious communities in Croatia, and their organisations, priests and other religious officials. It contains documents collected or produced by the State Security Service of the Republic Internal Affairs Secretariat of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, the civilian security and intelligence service in Croatia in the period from 1946 to 1990. Different cultural opposition activities of certain religious communities and their members can be studied on the basis of its documents. Criticism (concealed and public) of communist rule and its social and political system, i.e. the official doctrine of atheism, is especially visible.
Securitate. Plan of Action against Goma and his supporter...
Securitate. Plan of Action against Goma and his supporters at RFE and in the Romanian emigration, 17 March 1977
The Goma Movement Ad-hoc Collection includes numerous plans of action against the individuals involved in supporting the open letter of protest against the violation of human rights in Romania which was to be addressed to the CSCE Follow-Up Conference in Belgrade. Each Securitate informative surveillance file contains periodically updated plans of action, but these usually required only the approval of the high-ranking Securitate officer in charge of the case of the person in question. What is remarkable about this plan of action, which is part of Goma’s personal file, is its endorsement by the highest possible office holders in the Ministry of the Interior, to which the Direction of State Security was directly subordinated in 1977: the plan was countersigned by Nicolae Pleșiță, first deputy minister, and finally approved by Teodor Coman, the minister of the interior himself. Obviously, the hierarchical level of those who endorsed this plan indicates the great importance attached to this case. It is worth noting that the “successful” handling of the Goma Movement, in which Pleșiță involved himself and acted as Goma’s head interrogator, led to his promotion to the rank of lieutenant general in 1977. The same year, he coordinated the repressive measures taken by the regime in the aftermath of the Jiu Valley miners’ strike of August. Pleșiță remains notorious, however, for his actions while head of the Centre for Foreign Intelligence between 1980 and 1984, in particular for the 1982 failed attempt at suppressing Goma while in exile in Paris, and for the 1981 bomb attack on the RFE headquarters in Munich, for which the Securitate seems to have hired the infamous terrorist known as Carlos the Jackal. After 1989, Pleșiță showed no remorse for his misdeeds, and all attempts to hold him legally responsible for these wrongdoings eventually failed.
To return to this particular Securitate plan, its content and date of issuance illustrate that it was just an intermediate stage in the devising of actions meant to disintegrate the emerging movement. Chronologically, the date of issuance, 17 March 1977, is over a month after the open letter of protest against the violation of human rights was made public by Radio Free Europe, and thus it is entitled “plan of action for continuing the actions for annihilating and neutralising the hostile activities which Paul Goma initiated, being instigated and supported by Radio Free Europe and other reactionary centres in the West.” At the same time, it is a plan one step short of Goma’s arrest, which occurred two weeks later, on 1 April 1977. The document includes four separate types of action. The first type consists of the so-called “actions of discouragement, disorientation and intimidation,” which were directed mainly against Goma, but the necessity of tackling his supports separately is also mentioned. This type of action consists mostly of various forms of harassment up to the level of deporting him outside Bucharest in order to seclude him from his channels of communication across the border. These actions of rather soft repression were to be accompanied by attempts bring this problematic episode for the Securitate to a faster and neater end by convincing Goma to either give up or emigrate. The second category of actions included the use of the foreign press and publications in the attempt to compromise Goma and implicitly the movement for human rights initiated by him among the Romanian emigration and the Western audience. The third category referred to actions of counterbalancing the denigrating messages broadcast by Radio Free Europe, which was the radio agency that helped Goma the most. Finally, the fourth category consisted of actions to compromise Goma among the personnel of Western embassies in Bucharest, with the aim of depriving him of his channels of communication with RFE or other members of the exile community (ACNSAS, Informative Fonds, File I 2217/6, f. 109-112). All these measures failed, and thus Goma was eventually arrested and brutally interrogated, including by First Deputy Minister Pleșită himself, but liberated approximately a month later, on 6 May 1977, due to the massive protests of the Romanian emigration in Paris, which managed to convince many outstanding personalities to sign a petition for his release. This plan of action testifies to the Securitate practice of spreading calumnious rumours about all those who spoke against the regime in order to defame and isolate them. As Goma himself observes, “a document of great importance for me. (…) I knew that (…) the [calumnious] rumours and gossip (…) were inspired by the Securitate. Now I have the proof that the Securitate was not only inspiring, but also authoring them” (Goma 2005, 397).
A közel fél évszázada Korzikán élő magyar légiós veterán, Nemes Sándor az ezredforduló éveiben összeállított ’Légiós szótára’ jól tükrözi a Francia Idegenlégió soknyelvű, multietnikus és multikulturális világát – és benne a jelentős számú magyar önkéntes egyedi csoportidentitását. Mindennek megértéséhez elengedhetetlen néhány történeti adalék. Az 1831-ben Lajos Fülöp király által alapított Francia Idegenlégió máig jogfolytonos és aktív, mintegy 9000 fős haderőként erősen őrzi hagyományait, noha az 1960-as évek óta gyarmati hódító, megszálló sereg helyett mára főként nemzetközi békemissziókra, humanitárius és terrorelhárító feladatokra kiképzett elit-alakulatok hálózataként működik Franciaországban és a világ számos más pontján.
Különös paradoxon, hogy a Francia Idegenlégió – egy sor gazdasági, politikai krízis és háborúvesztés következtében – jó egy évszázadon át makacsul őrizte legénységi állománya németajkú (svájci, osztrák, elzászi, lotharingiai német, stb) többségi dominanciáját, ami jó időn át még vezényleti nyelvében és folklórjában – így eredetileg német indulóiban – is számos nyomot hagyott. Nem meglepő hát, hogy kivált az 1945 és 1956 utáni években, mikor a légiós toborzó statisztika több mint 4000 magyar újoncot regisztrált, mind jobban fölerősödött a magyar önkéntesek összetartása is, úgymond, ’a német maffiával’ szemben, amint azt Nemes Sándor és bajtársai is kiemelik emlékezéseikben. A szoros katonai hierarchiában, pláne háborús viszonyok között (Indokína, Algéria!) szükségképp rejtve így hát egy „kétfrontos” kulturális és identitásbeli ellenállás alakult ki a magyar rekruták körében: egyrészt a döntően francia és gyakran kihívóan fensőbbséges tisztikarral, másrészt a németajkú altisztekkel és tiszthelyettesekkel szemben. Mindezt tovább árnyalja, hogy a magyar önkéntesek (légiós ragadványnevükkel: a ’kicsik’, ’hunok’ vagy ’attilák’) maguk sem voltak egységesek kulturális és politikai csoport-identitásukat tekintve, hiszen a ’45 utáni „Horthy-huszárok’ és az ’56 utáni „Kádár-leventék”, még ha csak alig egy évtizednyi korkülönbséggel is, voltaképp két markánsan eltérő nemzedéket képviseltek. Az utóbbiak közül ez főként azok esetében tűnt ki, akiket a forradalom és a harcok gyakran kamaszként megélt élményközössége évtizedekre összekapcsolt, s akik, mint a provence-i magyar veteránkör tagjai, a legtovább éltették annak emlékét csoportos rítusaikkal (bankettek, koszorúzások, ’56-os relikviák gyűjtése és megosztása másolatban, majd a világhálón).
A fentieket Nemes Sándor Légiós szótárában főként a szerző előszava s a szótár 2-6. fejezetei illusztrálják számos további beszédes adalékkal. (Lásd: 2. Légiós argó- és jövevényszavak; 3. Beszédfordulatok, szólások, szállóigék; 4. Gyakoribb német jövevényszavak; 5. Gyakoribb arab jövevényszavak; 6. Az egyes nációk légiós gyűjtőnevei)
Scrisoare de la Ion Dumitru către Virgil Veniamin, 23 feb...
Scrisoare de la Ion Dumitru către Virgil Veniamin, 23 februarie 1980, München
This document is an important source of documentation for the understanding and writing of the history of the Romanian exile community in the 1980s. It concerns the organisation that Romanians of the emigration established to unmask the wrongdoings of the communist regime in their native country to the West in the hope that they would find external support for the removal of communism in Romania. In particular, the document illustrates exile actions for the observance of human rights in Romania, as it testifies to the existence of a political body set up for this purpose, namely Liga Românilor din Exil pentru Drepturile Omului (The League of Romanians in Exile for Human Rights). It had its headquarters in Paris and was coordinated by Virgil Veniamin, who was a personality of the exile. A graduate of the Law Faculty of the University of Paris in 1930, he was a professor of international law and a lawyer, as well as being a distinguished member of a Romanian political party, the National Peasant Party. The establishment of the communist regime found him at home in Romania, which he left clandestinely in February 1948, settling in Paris. In exile, he was particularly noted for his activity as president of the Carol I Royal University Foundation and as a member of the Romanian National Committee, considered by its founders as the Romanian government in exile. In the 1970s he was involved in a major scandal in the Romanian exile community when he was accused of collaborating with the Securitate in Bucharest. Today, based on the documents contained in the file on him created by the former Romanian secret police, it can be ascertained that he was indeed an agent of influence of the communist regime within the exile community. The document kept in the Ion Dumitru Collection is a request sent by the collector to Virgil Veniamin on 23 February 1980, asking him to accept affiliation to the central section in Paris of Liga Românilor din Exil pentru Drepturile Omului (The League of Romanians in Exile for Human Rights) of a newly established West German section based in Munich, in which Ion Dumitru had been elected chairman. In response to this request, Ion Dumitru received a favorable reply from Virgil Veniamin. Both documents, in A4 format, can be found in the private archive of Ion Dumitru at IICCMER.
The Oral History Collection at CNSAS is a unique collection of this kind as it includes only interviews with individuals who are the subjects of personal files in the CNSAS Archives, and who after studying these personal files created by the Securitate agreed to narrate their own experience of entanglement with the secret police. The interviewees include not only individuals who were under surveillance and thus victims of the Securitate, but also individuals who collaborated with the secret police to provide information on others: family, friends, and colleagues. Both types of interviews represent the response of the interviewees to the narrative created about them by the Securitate.
The Ștefan Gane Collection documents in photographs and slides the extent of the demolitions imposed by the so-called systematisation programme in Bucharest following the devastating earthquake of 4 March 1977, which the communist regime used as a pretext for destroying or mutilating numerous historic monuments. The Ștefan Gane Collection is also an important source for understanding and writing the history of that particular segment of the Romanian exile community which was extremely active in disseminating in Western countries information about the aberrant policies of the Ceaușescu regime. In particular, this personal archive illustrates the efforts of the collector and of other personalities from the exile community to stop the systematisation of Bucharest.
The Ion Dumitru Collection is the richest and most diverse of all the private archives of the Romanian exile community, which makes it indispensable for the study of the history of postwar Romanian exile. The collection is also a fundamental source for documenting and understanding Romania's (domestic and foreign) political, cultural, economic, and social evolution during both the communist and post-communist periods. At the same time, this private archive is a historical source both for understanding how the Bucharest authorities acted to divide the Romanians abroad and to counteract their actions aimed at unmasking the wrondoings of the communist regime between 1948 and 1989 in the West and for how Romanians within the country perceived the emigrant community.
Ivana Tigridová (1925-2008) was a journalist and human rights activist. She was one of the most distinguished personalities of Czechoslovak exile. In Paris, she founded two organisations supporting prisoners and persecuted opponents of the regime in Czechoslovakia and other countries of the Eastern Bloc.
The digital collection of the Oral History Center contains more than 2000 interviews with twentieth-century witnesses, which are divided into different themes and topics, thus presenting a unique collection of professionally created interviews and memories, many of which are related to the theme of cultural opposition.
Lovinescu–Ierunca Collection at Oradea University Library
Securitate. Chart and Statistical Data on Goma Movement Network, 1 April 1977
This chart epitomises the typical and efficient method which the Romanian secret police, the Securitate, used against those who attempted to establish networks of dissent in Romania. It seems to have been drafted for the Securitate officers who prepared the operative decision-making process regarding an emerging human rights movement in Romania, inspired by Charter 77. The driving force behind this movement was the writer Paul Goma, who initiated the movement in February 1977 by drafting a collective letter of protest against the violation of human rights in Romanian, which he and more than 200 other individuals eventually endorsed and addressed to the CSCE (Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe) Follow-Up Meeting in Belgrade. It was the first time that the Romanian secret police, the Securitate, had faced such an enormous challenge, and thus it had to react quickly in order to curtail the spread of the movement. In order to counteract this movement, the secret police had to collect in two months complex information about all those involved.
This chart and its annexes epitomise the collection of these complex data in the short time span between 9 February, when the collective letter was first broadcast by Radio Free Europe, and 1 April 1977, the day when the secret police arrested Paul Goma. The first thing one notices about this chart is its resemblance to the drawings made by high school teachers to facilitate a better understanding of a topic. The chart actually highlights Goma’s connections with the internal and external supporters of this movement which at that time constituted a collective action of unprecedented magnitude in communist Romania and implicitly a novel challenge for the Securitate. The chart only contains a schematic representation of Paul Goma’s relations with other persons (schema legăturilor lui Paul Goma). The central field, which features Paul Goma, is connected left and right with two columns of differently coloured fields. The left-hand column seems to represent a typology of individuals whom Goma had contacted in order to send documents relating to the activity of the emerging movement across the border to a Western country. They are divided into four categories: diplomats, foreign journalists, “reactionary elements from the emigration” and “autochthonous elements.” The right-hand column seems to categorise all those who had contacted Goma with the purpose of endorsing the movement. At the time when this chart was drawn, the Securitate had been able to scrutinise only 288 persons out of 430; the number of those identified to date is added in pencil. About these persons, there are three types of information offered: the actions taken (against them), their method of contacting Goma, and their political background (antecedente politice). The complex data collected about all these, which is included in annexes to this chart, included age, ethnicity, profession, education, place of residence and political background, meaning information about previous anti-regime activities.
The chart is an unusual type of document in the archives of the Securitate. Its unique character is directly related to the novelty of the challenge which the Securitate had to confront with Paul Goma’s attempt to establish a Romanian Charter 77. The novelty was twofold: it consisted both in the network established and the ideas expressed by this movement. Such a rapid solidarisation of individuals around a common purpose did not occur in communist Romania either before or after the Goma movement. At the same time, the defence of human rights was a totally alien idea and ideal in the political traditions of Eastern Europe in general, and of Romania in particular, even considering the period before the communist takeover. Thus, this emerging movement which implied the defence of a political idea (and not a material benefit) must have been really puzzling for the Securitate officers, who did their best to grasp the situation and understand the “real” motivations of the individuals protesting for the observance of such an “abstract” issue as human rights. This coloured chart and its annexes testify to the methods used by the Securitate in order to disaggregate a collective action for a common interest, the observance of human rights, into a multitude of individual actions, driven by personal interests and thus easier to break apart. In Goma’s words, “this is the use of statistics in the house of terror” (Goma 2005, 412).
The Mojmír Vaněk collection is a unique collection of materials that relate to the life and activities of Mojmír Vaněk. The activities of this distinctive, albeit unknown, Czechoslovak exile was very important for the dissemination of Czech music abroad, as well as his activities within the Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences, the Swiss branch of which he presided over for many years. The collection is at the Comenius Museum in Přerov.
The émigré manuscripts of the painter Joze Kljaković are located at the archives of the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome in Rome. The collection is a source for the study of Kljaković's prose and current affairs writing during his émigré life in Italy and Argentina. Kljaković stands out as an example of the culture of dissent, having written a handful of manuscripts at the time of exile, in which he heavily criticized the socialist regime in Croatia and Yugoslavia.
Lovinescu–Ierunca Collection at Central National Historic...
Lovinescu–Ierunca Collection at Central National Historical Archives (ANIC) Bucharest
The Lovinescu–Ierunca Collection at the Central National Historical Archives (ANIC) in Bucharest is arguably the most important collection created by the Romanian Diaspora in Paris. The collection illustrates not only Monica Lovinescu and Virgil Ierunca’s interest in the subject of dissent in Romania but also how their activity at Radio Free Europe (RFE) created a transnational network of support for those who decided to speak against the regime.
The entry on the "White Circle" in Jena deals with emigration requests and the lack of freedom to travel outside of the GDR, in particular non-socialist countries, after the construction of the Berlin Wall. Based on interviews with contemporaries, this entry highlights the significance of the protest group established in 1983 in Jena and its ripple effects throughout the GDR. Furthermore, it shows the impact of state measures directed against those who officially requested permission to leave the GDR, which eventually made them the subject of Stasi surveillance. The name "White Circle" in Jena is associated with a group of individuals whose requests to emigrate were rejected, and in a sign of protest, attached white banners to their car antennae in public. They initially organised it as a silent protest at the Platz der Kosmonauten (Cosmonauts’ Square), but later on each Saturday, many individuals who sought to leave the GDR, not just those who had been rejected began to gather. Only after significant press attention in the West did the local movement gather steam in the GDR, and of course also of the state. Following this movement, 70 emigration permits were granted, yet not all allowed for emigration to the West.
Scrisoare de la Ion Dumitru către Leonid Mămăligă, 8 augu...
Grupa jugoslovenskih komunista. Nacionalizam u Jugoslaviji u svjetlu jednog poređenja. 1973. letak
The leaflet Comparing Nationalism in Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia is a good example of the writing style and topics typically discussed by the Yugoslav Cominformist group in Prague. As political emigrants in Czechoslovakia, the authors often used examples from their host country to compare it with the situation in Yugoslavia: "Until the last war, Czechoslovakia, as well as Yugoslavia, was the dungeon of peoples. Slovakia, the supplier of cheap labour to the Czech bourgeoisie and landowners, the focal point for the goods of the Czech industry, was the object of the class and national exploitation, condemned to permanent poverty. It was the situation that resulted in nationalism and chauvinism the same way as it happened in pre-war Yugoslavia. Then Hitler came and 'helped' Slovakians to 'liberate themselves' from Czechs, as well as he 'helped' Croatians to 'liberate themselves' from Serbs. In a joint struggle against fascism, the Czechoslovakian as well as the Yugoslav peoples reunited, of course, with enormous sacrifices."
A göteborgi Tóth Magángyűjtemény az 1980-as évek elején nemzetközi hírnevet szerző magyar nyelvű Ellenpontok szamizdatkiadvány legösszetettebb anyaga, amely beavat a kommunista Románia emberjogi és kisebbségi küzdelmeinek a részleteibe. Ugyanakkor a Tóth családra következményként beköszönő emigrációs életút magyarországi, kanadai, svédországi szakaszainak tárgyi részei, mint például a hivatalos iratok, kéziratok, hangfelvételek, fotók, magánlevelezés és kisebbségi szakkönyvek, rávilágítanak a gyűjtők kulturális erőfeszítéseire, melyek célja az volt, hogy javítsanak az otthonmaradottak helyzetén.
The Zina Genyk-Berezovska Collection at the T.H. Shevchenko Institute of Literature in Kyiv is crucial for understanding the transnational networks underpinning cultural opposition in Ukraine and the Ukrainian diaspora community in Prague. The latter was largely composed of anti-Bolshevik émigrés that had fled to Czechoslovakia in the 1920s, after their failed attempt to establish the Ukrainian National Republic amid the chaos of the First World War. Genyk-Berezovska was born and raised in this community, studied Slavic languages and literatures at Charles University in Prague, later teaching and translating Ukrainian literature into Czech. Through personal connections, Genyk-Berezovska was also deeply involved in the cultural renaissance in Soviet Ukraine known as the sixtiers movement.
In addition to the more than 800 letters Genyk-Berezovska received from her many correspondents in Ukraine, her archive contains her own works as a scholar of Ukrainian and Czech literature, translator, and prominent community figure, as well as those of her husband Kost’ Genyk-Berezovsky, a philologist who taught Ukrainian at Charles University in Prague. Their family archive served as a repository for materials about prominent members of the Ukrainian émigré community in Czechoslovakia, including the Ukrainian sculptor Mykhailo Brynsky, the Czech writer František Hlaváček, the Ukrainian chemist and statesman Ivan Horbachevskyi, and Petro Krytskyi, a former colonel in the Ukrainian National Republican army, among others. This unique collection highlights both the transnational and the intergenerational dimensions of Ukrainian cultural opposition to communism.
The records of Croatian-American sociologist Dinko Tomašić are deposited at the Hoover Institution Library & Archives, Stanford University. In accordance with its own themes and periodization, it covers Tomašić's public work after the Second World War, when he settled in the United States as a political émigré. The collection testifies to Tomašić's sociological research, in which he critically examined political and social phenomena of post-war communist society in Croatia and Yugoslavia. The main thesis of Tomašić's sociological theory was that the revolutionary transformation of society and the huge growth of the party-state’s power destroyed political, economic, social and cultural pluralism in the public life of the Yugoslav nations. Based on his sociological methods, and making use of results the fields of ethnography and anthropology, he believed that the source of the Yugoslav revolution derived from the specific Dinaric culture, which belonged to economically passive territories, regions where the Partisan movement secured the great support, such as Montenegro, Dalmatia, Lika, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sbírka exilové literatury Československého dokumentačního...
Letter from Nicolae Lupan to Sanda Budiș, in Romanian, 13 October 1984
This letter from the Sanda Budiș Collection reflects the way the Romanian exile community acted to preserve, at least among those who emigrated from Romania, the memory of the territories occupied by the USSR, Bessarabia and Bukovina. An example in this respect is represented by the work carried out by Asociaţia Mondială prin Corespondenţă Pro Basarabia şi Bucovina (The World Association by Correspondence Pro Bessarabia and Bukovina). The Association was founded on 1 December 1950 in Paris by the Romanian diplomat Nicolae Dianu. The initial name was the Pro Bessarabia Association, modified on 27 November 1955 to the Pro Bessarabia and Bukovina Association, and from 1975 it became the World Association by Correspondence Pro Bessarabia and Bukovina. In 1955, the headquarters of the Association was moved to Brussels, where the leaflet Pro Basarabia and Bucovina together with a series of volumes about the two Romanian provinces were published by the Nistru Publishing House. Between 1975 and 1989, the Association was coordinated by Nicolae Lupan. Its purpose was, on the one hand, to preserve the memory of Bessarabia and Bukovina among emigrant Romanians. On the other hand, it was designed to attract the attention of politicians and international public opinion to the history of these former Romanian provinces. Many exiled personalities were actively involved in the activity of this Association, including Sanda Budiș, who joined it in 1984. On 13 October 1984, Nicolae Lupan, the president of the Association, sent her a letter, the typed original of which now is preserved in the Sanda Budiș Collection at IICCMER. In this letter, Nicolae Lupan congratulated and thanked her for her desire to join and contribute to the Association. On the same occasion, he sent her a membership card and some advice on how she should act as a member of the Association. She was informed that members’ activity was varied, consisting in: organising the commemoration of the anniversaries of the unions of Bessarabia and Bukovina with Romania (27 March and 28 November, respectively); publishing reports of these commemorations in the local press in their countries of residence; preparation of documented communications on the issue of these two territories annexed by the USSR and their submission for publication by the Association at the Nistru Publishing House in Brussels; supporting the publishing activity of the Association by means of money contributions and distributing its books among Romanians in their countries of residence; the collection of papers, articles, studies, maps, photographs, and newspaper cuttings relating to the Romanian identity of the provinces of Bessarabia and Bukovina with the purpose of centralising them at the Association's headquarters for publishing; explaining, in private and public discussion, the importance of Romanians' solidarity for the integrity of Romania, irrespective of political and religious beliefs; drafting suggestions and proposals on the functioning of the Association; and attracting new members by spreading membership forms.
Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences Collection
The Fištrović Collection of the Fran Galović Library and Reading Room in Koprivnica contains about 1,300 historical, political, economic and cultural books in English, many of which are the only copies in Croatia. The books were used by a group of Croatian intellectuals in Chicago in the 1990s to address the American public and advocate for a democratic and independent Croatia, which can be considered a final act of resistance to the Yugoslav socialist regime. The authors of some of the books are also intellectuals from the former Yugoslav republics, and their work, published in English, is evidence of their dissent against the Yugoslav system of government.
Krunoslav Draganović Collection on World War II and Post-...
Krunoslav Draganović Collection on World War II and Post-war Victims
The Krunoslav Draganović Collection on World War II and Post-war Victims is an archive collection whose original collector was the priest Krunoslav Draganović, who, relying primarily on the testimonies of survivors and other witnesses, planned to publish a book on the crimes of the Yugoslav communists.
Serke, Jürgen. Escape to the Madhouse, in German, 1981. C...
Serke, Jürgen. Escape to the Madhouse, in German, 1981. Copy of article
The German journalist and writer Jürgen Serke (b. 1938) dealt with persecuted and silenced artists. At the beginning of the 1980s, he was researching a book about life and work of Polish, Russian, East German, and Czechoslovak poets and writers living in exile. Thus, Jürgen Serke, accompanied by photographer Wilfried Bauer and Czech poet in exile, Jiří Gruša, visited Blatný in Ipswich in October 1981. Then, Serke wrote a report about Blatný and his life in exile entitled “Escape to the Madhouse” (Flucht ins Irrenhaus), which was published in the West German magazine Stern in December 1981. The following year, Serke’s book “Expelled Poets” (Die verbannten Dichter), which also included the report about Ivan Blatný, was issued. Serke’s article about Ivan Blatný in Stern found an echo. After its publication, Ivan Blatný received many letters and gifts, mainly from Czechoslovak emigrants. Some people also came to Ipswich to visit Blatný personally. Then, in 1982, British and Norwegian televisions made a documentary film about Ivan Blatný. Hence, Jürgen Serke, or specifically his article, “Escape to the Madhouse”, significantly contributed to the rediscovery of this almost forgotten exiled poet.
The Ivan Blatný Collection at the Museum of Czech Literature contains Blatný’s copy of Serke’s article.
An important activity of exile publishers was publishing of books by authors banned by the regime. A number of the copies was always intended for readers in Czechoslovakia and smuggled across the borders. However, the capacities of the “smuggling channels” were very limited, so one of the publishers came up with the production of reduced “smuggling” 9 x 7 cm versions of the books. Their transport across the borders to Czechoslovakia was much easier. Due to its small size, the editions were commonly called “hummingbirds”. The disadvantages of reduced and less readable print were balanced by the ingenious placement of a magnifying glass to the back of the books. Also, the books contained instructions on what to do if the police found illicit prints. These “hummingbirds” were most often smuggled through the “Austrian way,” which was managed by Vilém Prečan. The delivery of the shipment in Prague was organized by Jiřina Šiklová. A passenger car that had a secret box for the transport of books, periodicals and other materials in its trunk was used for smuggling. The driver was a young Austrian teacher who had been travelling to Prague between 1983 and 1987.
Dr. Szecskó Tibor (Gyöngyös, 1939 – Aix-en-Provence, 2017) hadtörténész, légiós veterán volt az első, aki 2011 őszén az 50 kérdésből álló, teljes életutat átfogó kérdőívet kitöltötte, s a provence-i magyar veterán kör szervezőjeként oroszlán része volt abban is, hogy utóbb számos bajtársát sikerrel bevonta a kutatásba (kérdőívezés, interjúzás, forgatás, levéltári kutatómunkák az aubagne-i Főparancsnokságon, stb.).
1940-ben született, gyöngyösi munkáscsalád legkisebb fiaként, édesapja kőműves volt. 1956 őszén egy mezőgazdasági szakiskola másodéves diákjaként lelkesen részt vett a forradalom helyi megmozdulásaiban, majd egyik társával Pestre ment, és a Corvin-közi felkelőkhöz csatlakozva nemzetőrnek állt. November végén, búcsú nélkül, Ausztriába szökött, előbb az eisenstadti gyűjtőtáborba került, majd 16 évesen Franciaországban kapott menedéket.
Rouenba érkezve nyomban felvételét kérte az Légióba – ám ekkor még hiába. Két éven át osztozott Lille és Párizs földönfutóinak sorsán, híd alatt lakva, segélyen és alkalmi munkákon tengődve. Az éhség és nyomor elől 1958 őszén ismét jelentkezett a Légióba, ezúttal sikerrel, s Marseille-ből Oránba áthajózva csakhamar a szaidai kiképzőtáborban találta magát. Két év múlva, alig húsz évesen, őrmesterré avanzsált, majd az 1. Idegen ezredben az ekkor tájt Afrikába érkező több száz magyar újonc kiképző altisztje lett. Ezután a 3. Gyalogezred altisztjeként maga is részt vett szaharai és madagaszkári hadműveletekben, két ízben megsebesült, majd az 1. Lovas- (páncélos) ezredhez került.
Az algériai háború után a Légió Szidi-bel-Abbesz-i anyabázisa a Marseille melletti Aubagne-ba települ át, itt kap ő is új beosztást a légiós főparancsnokság mellett. A ’70-es, ’80-as években a Légió Múzeumának igazgatója és Archívumának vezetője lesz, emellett a „Képi blanc” című légiós magazint szerkeszti. Közben Montpelier egyetemén történész diplomát szerez, majd – aktív légiósként máig egyedüliként – a hadtörténet doktora lesz. 28 és fél évi szolgálat után, 1986-ban törzszászlósként kéri nyugdíjazását, bár a tudományos életben és a veterán bajtársi körök (AALE) szervezésében továbbra is aktív marad. A Légió történetéről franciául, angolul, németül számos cikket, tanulmányt és tucatnyi önálló kötetet publikált.
Sokáig abban a tudatban élt, hogy légiós társaival együtt távollétében magyar állampolgárságától megfosztották. 1974-ben lett francia állampolgár; spanyol-francia feleségével, gyermekeivel és unokáival 1971 óta Aix-en-Provence-ban élt. Számos kitüntetése közül a „Művészet és Irodalom Lovagja” címre volt a legbüszkébb – e rangos civil elismerést aktív francia katona máig sem kapta meg rajta kívül. Noha szülőföldje iránt erős honvágy élt benne s magyarságát mindvégig híven őrizte, 1956 óta többé nem térhetett haza – előbb politikai, majd egészségi okokból. Súlyos betegségével elszántan dacolva 2017 végén hunyt el Aix-en-Provence-ban. Távozásával, a családján kívül nagy veszteség érte a provence-i magyar légiós bajtársi kört is, amelynek évtizedekig lelkes összetartója volt.
Pályája, életfelfogása, nyílt és szókimondó kérdőíves válaszaiból kellő mélységben feltárul, jól példázva a nagyidős veteránok három életszakasza – a légió előtti, alatti és utáni évtizedek – ellentmondásait, és koronként ambivalens hármas kötődését a szülőföldhöz, a Légióhoz és a fogadó országhoz. Miközben lojalitása az előbbi kettőhöz mindvégig töretlen maradt, akárcsak ’56-os gyökerű, mély antikommunizmusa, a francia közélettel és életformával szemben már tartózkodó, sőt, nem egyszer erősen kritikus volt, éppen „az igazi” patrióta lojalitást és önzetlenséget hiányolva belőle. Az ’56-os magyar légiós veteránkör is voltaképp ezen morális, kulturális rezisztencia erősítését és életben tartását célozta sajátos hagyományőrző közösségi rítusaival.
A veterán kérdőívek listája a gyűjteményben (2011-2017)
1. A. Domokos (Budapest, 1939) Paris, 2012
2. Bubla István Miklós (Keszthely, 1936) Paulhan, 2017
3. Huber Béla (Sopron, 1942 ) Aubagne, 2012
4. Spátay János (Budapest, 1943) Puyloubier, 2011
5. Soós Sándor (Budapest, 1939) Septémes les Vallons, 2012
6. Sorbán Gyula Elek (Budapest, 1940) Toulon, 2011
7. Szecskó Tibor (Gyöngyös, 1939) Aix-en-Provence 2017, 2011
8. Morvay Tamás (Budapest, 1938) Vins sur Caramy, 2012
9. Nemes Sándor (Szekszárd–Zomba, 1941) Borgo (Korzika), 2011
In France at the end of August 1963, around 300 to 500 copies of a fake issue (28 September) of Bosnian Views were distributed in A5 format including 9 pages of text. The forgery of issue number 28 was identical to the original September issue in the number of pages and its headlines. The fake issue however is characterized by poor print quality and therefore is relatively difficult to read. The first text that was signed as Z. bearing the title “On the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the conquest of Bosnia (1463-1963)”, in which the belief in the dogmas of Christianity is relativized and the reasons for the so-called “Good Bosniaks” converting to Islam presented in a rough way. The following text "What Muslims Must Know about Christianity" was signed with “Dr. Smail Balić”. In this text, the author undertakes a "scientific" discussion of the dogmas of the church, referring to the Gospels, the Qur'an, and the Hadith. It should be emphasized that at the end of the text, and in order to provide an illusion of the continuity of the editorial board, it is indicated that the content is going “to be continued”. The text also included the fake signature of “Dr. Selim Teskedzić (Tanja Nikšić)” under the heading “What Does Every Bosniak Need to Know?”, which attacks certain (real or fictitious) diaspora groups supporting the Croatian Peasant Party. In general, the fake issue took on an aggressive tone, full of propaganda, in which the texts supposedly signed by the editorial board were used try stir up Yugoslav diaspora and emigrant society.
Mesaj de protest al Asociației Internaționale pentru Prot...
Mesaj de protest al Asociației Internaționale pentru Protejarea Monumentelor și Siturilor Istorice din România, în franceză și engleză, Paris, 1985
This document reflects the way in which the Romanian exile community organised itself and acted to promote media coverage in the West of the urban systematisation project of Ceaușescu's regime, which tacitly involved the demolition, mutilation, or destruction of the national heritage. The protest message was shared when the International Association for the Protection of Monuments and Historic Sites in Romania was founded in 1985, in Paris. The purpose of the association was to draw the attention of political decision-makers and international public opinion to the communist regime's plan for the demolition of the architectural and urban heritage of Romania. The actions undertaken within the Association focused particularly on the promotion of media coverage of the demolition of the city centre of Bucharest, which the communist authorities planned to reorganise according to their architectural vision. On the occasion of its foundation, the association organised a protest on the streets of Paris, during which it distributed a protest message to participants and passers-by with texts about communist Romania accompanied by photographs of historic monuments destroyed by the communists or scheduled to be demolished or moved. A copy of this protest message was sent by post to several Romanian exiles in order to convince them to join the Association and get involved in unmasking the communist regime in Romania and, in particular, the urban systematisation project of the Ceaușescu regime. This document was sent by the president of the Association, the architect Ștefan Gane, to Sanda Stolojan, a personality of the Romanian exile, who kept it in her private archive. The document, which can be consulted in the IICCMER collection, was written in English and French, in A4 format. The material, titled "Protest: Romania's historical and spiritual heritage is in danger," briefly outlines the consequences of the Bucharest systematisation project undertaken by the Communist authorities since 1977 and some examples of monuments from the historical and spiritual heritage of the Romanians that had been destroyed, demolished, or mutilated by the Ceaușescu regime. Against this background, the association protested, asking for: a stop to the demolition of historic monuments and sites in the country; the re-establishment of the Romanian Historic Monuments Commission, abolished in 1977; and the rebuilding, under the aegis of this Commission and with the help of the International Council for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites and other international organisations, of the demolished historic monuments and sites.
Bosanski pogledi (Bosnian Views Journal Collection)
A Francia Idegenlégióban szolgált magyarok levéltári forrásai
E különleges történeti forrásgyűjtemény, amely a budapesti OSA-Blinken Archívumban kutatható, Nóvé Béla történész, dokumentumfilmes alkotó kiterjedt levéltári és oral history kutatásainak bő forrásanyagát tartalmazza, melyet 2011 és 2016 között gyűjtött és részben maga keletkeztetett (kamerás interjúk, kérdőívek, etc) a kutató Franciaországban és idehaza. A gyűjtemény, melyben magán és testületi, papíralapú és digitális források egyaránt találhatók, azon több mint 4000 magyar önkéntes sorsát dokumentálja, akik 1945, majd 1956 után menekültként álltak a Francia Idegenlégióba. Közülük is kiváltképp azon mintegy 500 kamasz menekült fiúét, aki 1956-ban aktív résztvevője volt a forradalmi eseményeknek s a harcoknak, majd Nyugatra szökve csakhamar légiósnak állt, hogy az algériai háború véres fináléjából se maradjon ki. Közülük vagy két tucat veterán, közel a nyolcvanhoz (2018-ban), ma is összetart még, s egy bajtársi kör tagjaiként rendszeresen találkozik a dél-franciaországi Provence-ban.
A Szabad Magyar Egyetemisták Szövetségének iratai – Váral...
A Szabad Magyar Egyetemisták Szövetségének iratai – Várallyay Gyula gyűjteménye, 1957-1967
A Szabad Magyar Egyetemisták Szövetsége – SzMESz, korábban és később újra: MEFESZ – a Nyugatra menekült magyar diákok népes rajának világszervezete volt az 1956-os forradalom brutális eltiprása után. Az 1957 nyarán alakult Szövetség három földrész tizenhat országában mintegy 8000 magyar egyetemistát képviselt jó egy évtizeden át, évről-évre másutt megrendezett kongresszusaival, tanulmányi és kulturális programjaival, nemzetközi sajtókampányaival, tiltakozásaival és szolidaritási akcióival próbálván ébren tartani a magyar forradalom demokratikus és patrióta szellemét világszerte. Várallyay Gyula, 1956 őszén a Budapesti Műszaki Egyetem másodéves hallgatója, egyike volt az emigráns diákmozgalom leginkább aktív, elkötelezett vezetőinek, aki 1959 őszén egy évre megszakította a Harward Egyetemen tanulmányait, hogy a Szövetség genfi központjában az elnöki teendőket ellássa. Az SzMSz –1961-től újra MEFESZ – több mint fél évszázadon át jórészt washingtoni otthonában őrzött iratait 2016 nyarán adományozta a budapesti 1956-os Intézet Kézirattárának.
The collection documents the work of Croatian historian and political émigré Nikola Čolak (1914-1996). In 1966, he belonged to a group of academics and thinkers from Zadar, who officially sought to break the Communist Party's monopoly on truth by establishing the first journal not controlled by the Party. After the suppression of this initiative, Čolak was forced into exile in Italy. The so-called Movement of Independent Intellectuals represented the first attempt to create a formal cultural opposition circle not only in Croatia, but in Yugoslavia as a whole, which is recorded through this collection.
The collection of the Radio Free Europe consists of 17 000 recordings of broadcasts on magnetic tapes and casettes, most of them covering the key historical events in Poland and within Polish diaspora. Polish Section of the Radio Free Europe broadcasted political, but also cultural, musical, religious and entertainment content, created by journalists and writers from Polish diaspora in Western Europe. The Radio was one of the main sources of independent news in socialist Poland.
Emil şi Aurel Cioran - Fondul Documentar de la Biblioteca...
The Milovan Djilas collection is deposited at the Hoover Institute Library & Archives, located at Stanford University in the United States. It offers an important insight into the life and work of the first and most prominent dissident in Yugoslavia, who was also one of the most notable dissidents anywhere in communist Europe. Djilas had been the main ideologue of the Yugoslav Communist Party and one of the Tito's closest associates when he confronted the Party and Tito in the mid-1950s.
The Pavao Tijan Collection is deposited in the Archives of the Croatian Academy of Science and Arts in Zagreb. It demonstrates the cultural-oppositional activities of the Croatian émigré Pavao Tijan, who lived in Madrid after the Second World War. There, Tijan organized anti-communist activities against the Yugoslav regime and also against global communism during the time of the Cold War. This collection is very important to the little known Croatian cultural history of the émigré colony of Spain.
Sbírka Jiřího Lederera Československého dokumentačního st...
Ladislav Mňačko Collection at the Museum of Czech Literature
The collection of Ladislav Mňačko (1919–1994), a Slovak writer and former prominent Czechoslovak journalist, consists of unique correspondence, manuscripts, prints and clippings which help to describe the life of this significant writer, who after August 1968 was a critic of the communist regime and a representative of Czechoslovak exile literature.
Letter from Virgil Ierunca to Sanda Budiș, in Romanian, 2...
Letter from Virgil Ierunca to Sanda Budiș, in Romanian, 25 February 1985
This letter is an important document for the history of the post-war Romanian exile community because it is proof of the activity of fighting communist propaganda outside the country, as well as of the integration of Romanian culture into Western culture. Such activity was also carried out by Sanda Budiș, an exile community personality, who emigrated to Switzerland in 1973. One of her actions, alongside another representative of the Romanian exile community in Switzerland, the lawyer Dumitru Stambuliu, consisted in supplying the Swiss Library for Eastern Europe in Bern with publications of the Romanian exile community. The starting point of Sanda Budiș’s project was a book donation from Romania, which the Romanian ambassador to Switzerland made to the Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne in 1984. This donation took place during a festivity advertised in the local press. In response, Sanda Budiș took the initiative to donate publications of the Romanian exile community from her personal library to this library, but her donation was denied "for political reasons." Consequently, she addressed the leadership of another institution – the Swiss Library for Eastern Europe in Bern – which served at the time as a documentary fonds for the Swiss Eastern Institute (Institut suisse de recherche sur les pays de l'Est–ISE/Schweizerische Ostinstitut–SOI), an institute that carried out research on communist countries. At the Institute, both the management and the members were Swiss personalities with authority in their field of expertise. The management of this library accepted her donation “with great satisfaction, especially as it is literally flooded by propaganda publications sent free and regularly by the various propaganda officers of the Ceaușescu regime.” In order to counteract the propaganda of the Romanian communist authorities, Sanda Budiș continued her efforts by sending letters to the management of important and representative publications of the Romanian exile community. Among the recipients of such letters was Virgil Ierunca, who accepted her invitation and sent to the library not only newspapers and magazines of the exile community, but also books published by Romanians abroad. Ierunca also responded to Sanda Budiș in a letter in which he congratulated and thanked her for the action she had initiated. The original handwritten letter is to be found today in the Sanda Budiş Collection at IICCMER.
Vjesnik Newspaper Documentation is an archival collection created in the Vjesnik newspaper publishing enterprise from 1964 to 2006. It includes about twelve million press clippings, organized into six thousand topics and sixty thousand dossiers on public persons. Inter alia, it documents various forms of cultural opposition in the former Yugoslavia, but also in other communist countries in Europe and worldwide.
In 1963 the painter and graphic artist Roger Loewig was arrested following his first privately organised exhibition in East-Berlin. Throughout the regime, Loewig denied socialist realism artistic forms of production, while his artworks were considered subversive. After almost one year of imprisonment, Loewig was released in the GDR with the support from the Protestant Church from West Germany. Loewig’s release on three years probation could not be prevented. It was only 1972 that the artist could leave the GDR and settled in West-Berlin. Following his death in 1997, Loewig’s private fine-arts collection was bestowed by the Roger Loewig Association. This was founded in 1998 in Frankfurt Oder. Since 2000 the fine-arts legacy of the artist is preserved by the Federal Foundation for Reappraisal of the SED Dictatorship. This aims at facilitating the scientific documentation and preservation of Loewig' artistic legacy. The literary and biographical works are currently on hold at the Academy of Arts in Berlin.
Blatný, Ivan. Old Addresses, in Czech, 1979. Typescript
The collection exists thanks to Kolář’s friendships with artists and reflects his personal taste. Kolář bought works directly from the artists and thus he supported them. Along with works from the second half of the twentieth century, Kolář also collected older works, which are part of the collection.
A Külföldi Magyar Cserkészszövetség központi iratanyagának különleges forrásértékét az adja, hogy az 1910-ben indult magyar cserkészmozgalom folytonosságát, annak itthoni betiltását követően, jó négy évtizeden át (1948-1989) az emigráns magyar cserkészet biztosította, átmentve és sokban megújítva annak sajátos népi-nemzeti tradícióját. Mindez, a külföldi magyar cserkészmozgalom vezetőinek sajátos küldetéstudata szerint a kulturális ellenállás 'kétfrontos' harcát volt hivatott szolgálni: egyrészt az itthoni hivatalos, 'kommunista történelem-hamisítás' és kultúrpolitika ellenében, másrészt az asszimilációval, a nyelvi és kulturális beolvadással szemben elszántan dacolva négy földrész közel húsz befogadó országának idegen, multietnikus közegében.
ВАСИЛЬ СЕДЛЯР. «ГОЛОДОМОРНЕ ВИДАННЯ» КОБЗАРЯ Т. Г. ШЕВЧЕН...
The collection is important proof of the activities of a left-thinking historian, a "spiritual father" and co-founder of the Committee for the Defence of the Unjustly Prosecuted (VONS), a co-publisher of unofficial periodic Dialogy, who was imprisoned several times and forced to go to exile, where he collaborated with dissidents from other socialist countries.
Ladislav Mňačko (1919–1994), a Slovak writer, poet, playwright and journalist, is well known mainly as the author of the famous book Jak chutná moc (The Taste of Power; 1967), which describes the practices of Communist functionaries, as well as several other works which were published in Czechoslovakia before 1968. His works written in Austrian exile after 1968 are less well known. This also applies to the play Tschistka (Purge). This satirical play describes the practices of an omnipotent secret police in a totalitarian state, which in the end becomes the victim of its very own terror. It was produced by the Austrian broadcaster ORF as a radio play in 1983 and directed by Fritz Zecha. The play was also produced by the Slovak National Theatre in 1993. The Austrian edition of this play from 1980 is held in the Ladislav Mňačko Collection in the Literary Archive of Museum of Czech Literature.
Písemnosti Rady svobodného Československa byly zkompletovány v roce 2006 v Centru československých exilových studií. Fond zahrnuje 190 kartonů archivních materiálů, ve kterých lze najít materiály řídících orgánů Rady, dále také materiály, které byly připravovány jako podklady pro jednání (novinové výstřižky, rozhovory, rukopisy, poznámky atp), dále také zápisy ze schůzí a poznámky, samozřejmě i bohatá korespondence ať už mezi členy Rady, nebo s exilovými, vládními i nevládními organizacemi. Ve fondu lze také nalézt tiskové zprávy, prohlášení a memoranda.
The Collection of Croatian-American historian Jere Jareb (PhD) contains over 4,500 books, magazines and various brochures in Croatian, English, German, Italian and Slovenian. Dr Jareb, who began compiling the collection in the 1950s, donated it to the Croatian Institute of History in 1997. A particularly intriguing part of the collection are the numerous editions of books, magazines and brochures published by Croatian emigrants in the USA who were critical of the communist regime in Croatia and Yugoslavia. Some of these editions are not available anywhere else in Croatia.
The collection consists of documents pertaining to Hristo Damyanov Ognyanov, a leading figure of the Bulgarian democratic opposition in exile. The collection is located at the Central State Archive in Sofia. Hristo Ognyanov (born 1911, died 1997) was a writer and journalist. He was part of different Bulgarian exile communities, in Austria, the USA, and West Germany. He worked for Bulgarian émigré publications and contributed to The Voice of America and Radio Free Europe. In Germany, Ognyanov (often published under Christo Ognjanoff) became a member of EXIL-PEN. He was co-founder of the Petar Beron Bulgarian Academic Society (BAS “Petar Beron”), which sought to unite Bulgarian exile intellectuals. This collection is an important source of information about the Bulgarian cultural opposition in exile, their international connections and network, and their contacts with opposition groups in Bulgaria.
Sbírka Gordona H. Skillinga Československého dokumentačního střediska
Skilling H. Gordon (1912-2001) was a prominent Canadian historian, political scientist and Slavist. His life and work were closely linked to the dramatic fate of Czechoslovakia from the late 1930s to the 1989 Velvet Revolution.
A Történeti Interjúk Tára az egyik legjelentősebb magyarországi oral history gyűjteménynek ad otthont. A gyűjtemény egyaránt tartalmaz olyan felvételeket, amelyek kifejezetten oral history dokumentációs céllal készültek és az interjúalany egész életét végigkövetik, és olyan anyagokat, melyek történelmi dokumentumfilmek nyersanyagául szolgáltak a hatvanas években és később. Utóbbiak többnyire egy-egy témát járnak körül, nem bszélik el az egész élettörténetet. A Tár különösen hasznos a magyar televíziózás történetének tanulmányozásához. Az interjúk közt számos olyan található, mely a kulturális ellenállás tanulmányozása szempontjából releváns történelmi szereplőkkel készült, sőt maga a Tár létrejöttének története sem függetleníthető nonkonform kulturális gyakorlatoktól.
The Raţiu–Tilea Personal Library Collection reflects the academic interests of two Romanian intellectuals living in exile, both involved in the political organisations of the Romanian Diaspora in the West and authoring relevant works on twentieth century Romania. The collection brings together a large number of publications dealing with postwar Eastern Europe, including the most appreciated academic contributions on the history of Romanian communism published in the West.
Ferdinand Peroutka Collection at the Museum of Czech Lite...
Ferdinand Peroutka Collection at the Museum of Czech Literature
The collection of the Czech journalist, dramatist and director of the Czechoslovak section of Radio Free Europe, Ferdinand Peroutka (1895–1978), contains unique sources for the history of the Czechoslovak exile after 1948.
The Sanda Stolojan Collection is an important source of documentation for understanding and writing the history of that particular segment of the Romanian exile community which was actively involved in the West in unmasking the communist regime in Romania. At the same time, this private archive contributes to an understanding of Romanian–French bilateral relations between 1968 and 1998. In particular, the collection illustrates the activity of the collector and other personalities of the exile aimed at promoting respect for human rights in Romania and stopping the demolitions imposed by the communist authorities as part of Bucharest's systematisation programme, and later at supporting the reconstruction of democracy in their country of origin.
Sbírka cizí exilové monografie a časopisy v Libri prohibiti
Juretić, Augustin. “Suština sukoba Kominform – Tito” [The essence of the Cominform conflict – Tito] (Hrvatski dom), 1950. Article
The Croatian expatriate magazine Hrvatski dom, edited and published by Augustin Juretić in Switzerland, carried the article "The essence of the Cominform conflict – Tito," in its issue of 15 November 1950. The article is unsigned, and as with most unsigned articles in the magazine, its author is probably Juretić. The article described the essence of the conflict between Tito and Stalin, considering it through the prism of Marxist theory and practice. Juretić concluded that Tito carried out the last communist revolution in the world, which according to Marxist theory made him the leader of the world communist movement, i.e. placed him ahead of Stalin. As a warning to Western leaders, Juretić stated that in the future Tito could become more dangerous than Moscow, and that “the destruction of world communism will required Tito’s destruction as well” (Hrvatski dom, 15 November 1950, 3-6)
The manuscript of the article is held in the Augustin Juretić Collection at the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome in Rome. The collection also contains a printed version of the article published in Hrvatski dom.
L’Alternative : Pour les droits et les libertés démocrati...
Letter from Victor Frunză to Eugen Ionescu in Paris, in Romanian, 8 September 1978
This letter is an important document for the history of the post-war Romanian exile community because it is a proof of the attempt of a Romanian dissident to establish a connection with the emigration. The purpose was to gain the support of Romanians abroad. If their situation was publicised in the West, then there were chances that once returned to their country they would not suffer the reprisals of the communist regime. Also, such actions were meant to trigger the support of international public opinion in criticising Nicolae Ceausescu's dictatorship. One such example was the action of the Romanian writer and journalist Victor Frunză during a tour in France in 1978. In Paris, he wrote a letter to Eugène Ionesco (Eugen Ionescu), a French-language writer originally from Romania, a representative of the theatre of the absurd and a member of the French Academy. In this document, sent on 8 September 1978, Victor Frunză informed Eugène Ionesco that, in France, he criticised openly the situation in communist Romania, especially the personal power and personality cult of Nicolae Ceaușescu. Starting from the idea that he was not the first Romanian and hopefully not the last to do so, Frunză told Ionesco that his approach was deliberately chosen, in full awareness of the possible consequences for him: "When I did this, I knew what I could expect, but I have defeated my fear (...). The sense of the justice of my criticisms gives me the strength to resist. There is no fear of the reprisals that will come anyway, but in the face of the fears of others who can in my mind support me, and in fact will leave me. Immense is the fear of staying alone, as in a desert." In conclusion, Victor Frunză asked Eugène Ionesco to publicly support his action of criticising the dictatorship and personality cult of Nicolae Ceaușescu.
Smoloskyp collection (Museum-Archive and Documentation Centre of Ukrainian Samvydav in Kyiv)
The collection was created in the Ukrainian diaspora by the Smoloskyp Publishing House. Deeply involved in political and cultural opposition in Soviet and post-Soviet Ukraine, Smoloskyp built a communication channel between Ukraine and the international community, making the Ukrainian oppositional movement internationally known. In 1998, the collection was institutionalized as the Museum-Archive and Documentation Centre of Ukrainian Samvydav in Kyiv. It holds the most extensive collection of Ukrainian samizdat; Ukrainian diaspora periodicals; the collection of Ukrainian tamizdat (samizdat materials published abroad in Ukrainian, Russian, English, French, German and other languages); hundreds of photos of Soviet-era political prisoners and dissidents; the archives of several committees for human rights in Ukraine from the US, Canada, Australia, Argentina, and other countries.
The collection comprising the documents collected by Ion Raţiu and Viorel V. Tilea gives detailed insights into the activities of its two creators, who were key political and cultural personalities of the Romanian diaspora. It represents one of the most valuable sources of documentation for the history of the Romanian exile community in the West during the Cold War period.
Interview with Dinu Zamfirescu, July 2010, Bucharest
The Augustin Juretić Collection in the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome in Rome consists of written (manuscripts and printed matter) legacy collected by Croatian Catholic intellectual Msgr. Juretić during his life as an émigré from 1942 until his death in 1954. The collection attests to Msgr. Juretić’s cultural-opposition activities against the Ustasha regime and communist ideology until 1945, and against the communist government until his death. Msgr. Juretić, in his cultural-opposition activities, advocated the liberation of Croatia from the totalitarian systems of the Ustasha and communist regimes, and ultimately for the creation of an independent Croatian state based on the Christian tradition and democratic principles.
Zoran Đinđić Personal Collection at the Archives of Serbia
Located at the Józef Piłsudski Institute in London, the Prometheus Collection contains records related to the Promethean movement, the Polish-led alliance of nationalist movements of non-Russian nations and ethnic groups that inhabited the Soviet Union. The origins of the movement go back to Prometheism, Józef Piłsudski's project of weakening imperial and later Bolshevik Russia by supporting the struggle for independence of the peoples of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea regions. The Promethean movement encompassed mostly representatives of Ukrainians, Kuban Cossacks, Georgians, Azeris, and north Caucasus nations and relied on the support of the Polish military. After World War II, the movement continued in exile under the leadership of Polish émigrés, mostly Piłsudski's followers. The collection consists of twelve files and contains memoranda, correspondence, newsletters, and photographs of various Promethean activists.
Jézus Társasága Magyarországi Rendtartomány Levéltára
Jézus Társasága Magyarországi Rendtartomány Levéltára
A Jézus Társasága Magyarországi Rendtartomány Levéltára az 1950 és 1990 között Magyarországon betiltott és üldözött jezsuita szerzetesrend tagjaival kapcsolatos forrásokat őriz. Az összegyűjtött és megőrzött levéltári iratok a jezsuita szerzetesek identitásmegőrző tevékenységét dokumentálják, amelyet a kommunista diktatúra nyomása alatt is felvállaltak.
The Sanda Budiș Collection is an important source of documentation for understanding and writing the history of that particular segment of the Romanian exile community which was extremely active in supporting dissidents in the country and in disseminating information about the repressive or aberrant policies of the Ceauşescu regime. In particular, the collection illustrates the actions of the collector and other personalities aimed at putting pressure on the communist authorities in order to give up the project of systematisation of Romanian villages. Also, the documents in this collection reflect the involvement of Romanians abroad in rebuilding democracy in their home country.
Komisija za ispitivanje nacionalističkih pojava u Matici ...
Komisija za ispitivanje nacionalističkih pojava u Matici iseljenika Hrvatske (1964. – 1967.)
This thematic collection documents the work of the Commission for the Examination of Nationalist Phenomena in the Emigrant Foundation of Croatia (EFC) of Executive Council of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Croatia (EC CC LCC), in the period from 1964 to 1967. The commission was established solely to monitor the activities of the EFC's president, Većeslav Holjevac, and some of his associates, who were considered as opposition figures and nationalists. The collection contains documents that explicitly cite examples of oppositional activities in the EFC which testify to the role of the EFC leadership in opposition in the field of culture pertaining to Croatian emigrant communities, as well as the role of CC LCC in their condemnation.
Invitation from Ion Rațiu to Sanda Budiș for the First Fr...
Karl Laantee isikuarhiiv Tartu Ülikooli Raamatukogus
The collection contains documents about Estonian emigré communities in the West, primarily on political and religious subjects. Additionally, it includes material in the Estonian language about the Voice of America radio station. Furthermore, the collection boasts extensive material about the dissident movement in Estonia in the 1980s.
Mihajlov, Mihajlo. Zadnji broj dvomjesečnoga biltena CADD...
Mihajlov, Mihajlo. Zadnji broj dvomjesečnoga biltena CADDY, 2. ožujka 1994.
The last issue of the CADDY bulletin contained a recapitulation of the work of both the CADDY and the bulletin itself. Although the last issue appeared in November 1992, sometime later, at the beginning of March 1994, it was announced that the work of the CADDY had ended, which included the publication of the bulletin. This all happened against the backdrop of the definitive disintegration of the Yugoslav state and the war in its former territory. Such a turn of events signalled a defeat for the ideals championed by Mihajlo Mihajlov and Rusko Matulić as the main leaders of the project, who believed in the possibility of maintaining Yugoslavia in a democratized form.
Most likely, this epilogue forced Mihajlov and Matulić to forsake their work around the CADDY and the bulletin. On the other hand, there was no single-party dictatorship in the republics of the former Yugoslavia, and the public was no longer strictly controlled as it was in the preceding period. During the 1990s, the first multiparty elections were held in all of the Yugoslav republics. However, in his final message to readers, Mihajlov pointed out the pioneering role of the CADDY in informing the Western public about the status of political freedoms and human rights in Yugoslavia, and in presenting the fate of each dissident. He also stressed that CADDY was quoted in over 20 books and 60 magazines and newspapers throughout the Western world. (Rusko Matulic Papers, box 4).
Vladislav, Jan. Interview by Petr Kotyk, 6 August 1992. V...
1946-ban Szabó Lajos filozófus, aki gondolkodói álláspontját biblicizmusként határozta meg (egy olyan opciót értve ezalatt, amiből nem marad ki a kultúrának és az életnek egyetlen területe sem), magánlakásokon zártkörű szemináriumot rendezett fiatalok számára, amelyek később több szakaszban zajlottak, pszichológia, közgazdaságtan, értékelmélet, egzisztencializmus és indiai hagyomány, halmazelmélet és nyelvmatézis, történelemfelfogás és mozgalomelmélet témakörökben. Kunszt György barátjával rendszeresen jegyzetelt ezeken az előadásokon, és életre szóló mester-tanítványi viszony szövődött közöttük. Szabó hagyatékának gondozásában is aktívan részt vett, az általa az MTA Könyvtár kézirattárának adományozott anyag saját feldolgozómunkájának dokumentumait, valamint Szabó Lajos emigrációban készült filozófiai tárgyú jegyzetfüzeteit tartalmazza.
Cs. Szabó László, az emigráns magyar író könyvgyűjteménye egy egyedülálló, 11 000 kötetből és számos folyóiratból álló hagyaték. Egy olyan ember érdeklődését tükrözi, aki elutasította a totalitárius rendszereket, s egyben lenyomata egy olyan kísérletnek, mely a különböző magyar ellenzéki mozgalmakat igyekezett egymáshoz közelíteni.
The Diploma of the Monismanien Cultural Prize for Charter 77 Foundation in Stockholm, 1978.
The Diploma of the Monismanien Cultural Prize, inspired the foundation of the Charter 77 in Stockholm. The foundation was founded on the initiative of writer Vaclav Havel after the Charta 77 civic movement was awarded the Monismanien Prize for "its struggle to promote the fundamental human right to freedom of expression." On behalf of Charter 77, he took the prize at the University of Uppsala on December 4, 1978 from the hands of its rector, Professor Frantisek Janouch, who read the letter of the spokesmen of Charter 77 Václav Havel and Ladislav Hejdanek. The prize, which was subsidised with a sum of 15,000 Swedish crowns, was used to set up a fund to support the Czechoslovak citizens, persecuted for their participation in Charter 77, and families of Czechoslovakia. On the occasion of the Monismanien Prize, a call was made to the Scandinavian and international public asking for support for the persecuted opponents of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia. After a successful response, it managed to get more money from private donors and organisations. Thus, this supportive activity was formalised and the Charter 77 Foundation was founded, which until 1989 supported the Czechoslovak opposition. The foundation was led by Professor Frantisek Janouch throughout his life. The diploma of the Monismanien cultural monument in Sweden is only a copy in the collection, the original was probably sent by the Charter 77 spokesperson to Prague.
Vermes Géza dedikált kötete Fejtő Ferencnek (2000)
Fejtő Ferenc számos könyvet írt a zsidók történetéről és a zsidó vallásról. Több vallástörténésszel is felvette a kapcsolatot, pl. Vermes Gézával is, aki Magyarországon született és Nagy-Britanniában élt. 2000-ben Vermes Oxfordban dedikálta önéletrajzát ('Gondviselésszerű véletlenek') Fejtőnek. Ez a könyv a fehérvárcsurgói Fejtő Ferenc Könyvtárba került, és egyike lett a sok dedikált kötetnek.
The Charter 77 Foundation was founded in Stockholm in 1978 to support persecuted and imprisoned chartists and dissidents in Czechoslovakia, as well as to support opposition activities in the fight for human rights and civil liberties. The Charter 77 Foundation was led and organised by Frantisek Janouch.
Mihnea Berindei - Colecția de la Arhivele Naționale Iași (SJAN Iași)
The Mihnea Berindei Collection comprises a significant part of the founder’s personal archive. These materials were accumulated in exile during the period 1977–1989, when Berindei was actively involved in assisting Romanian dissidents persecuted by the Ceauşescu regime. He was also an important intermediary between the fledgling Romanian opposition movement and the Western press, public opinion, and political establishment, playing a crucial role in publicising and enhancing the visibility of the Romanian case in the West. The major part of Mihnea Berindei’s personal archive is currently stored at the Iași Branch of the Romanian National Archives (Serviciul Județean Iași al Arhivelor Naționale). These papers were donated to the archives in 2013 and 2016. They include a variety of materials relating to communist Romania, the policies of the Ceauşescu regime and various manifestations of Romanian dissent (including cases of specific dissidents). The collection features a rich selection of documents relating to the activity of Radio Free Europe (RFE) during the 1980s, when Berindei was closely associated with the station’s Romanian-language service. The collection also contains a series of materials dealing with Eastern European developments in the 1990s. This is one of the most important private archives concerning communist Romania created in exile. As such, it will be of utmost significance to interested researchers and the wider public.
Vajay Szabolcs gyűjteménye a klasszikus polgári műveltséget képviselő magyar tudós hagyatéka, mely egyszersmind lenyomata egy kisebbségbe szoruló kultúra megőrzésére irányuló igyekezetnek. A gyűjtemény révén betekintést nyerhetünk a kulturális értékeket külföldre menekítő, emigrációs életformába.
A Baksa Soós János Különgyűjtemény a jó közérzet szellemét zászlajára tűző, a magatartást médiummá minősítő művészegyéniség hatvanas években Magyarországon megkezdett, majd németországi emigrációban kiteljesített életművének akusztikus, írott és vizuális dokumentumait foglalja magába. A Cseh Tamás Archívumban őrzött gyűjtemény célja a több műfajban is tevékeny alkotó műveit összefüggéseik mentén, eszméinek, személyiségének és környezetére gyakorolt hatásának kontextusában bemutatni.
Az archívum a legsikeresebb emberi és kisebbségi jogokkal foglalkozó amerikai magyar érdekvédelmi szervezetek egyikének magán dokumentumgyűjteménye. Az 1976-ban második generációs amerikai értelmiségiek és szakemberek által alapított, 1984-es átalakulásáig Emberi Jogokért Romániában Bizottságnak (CHRR) nevezett Magyar Emberi Jogok Alapítvány (HHRF) a Kelet- és Közép-Európában élő magyar kisebbségi közösségek érdekvédelmét látja el.
Miodrag Mica Popovic (1923-1996) was a painter, art critic, writer and academician. Popovic's lifestyle itself can be described as in cultural opposition to the regime and government that imposed its own ideological forms. Until the end of his life, he clearly demonstrated his incompatibility with the system, which let him stay faithful to the ideal of free thinking and expression. The images from the series the ‘Scenes Painting’ [Slikarstvo prizora] stem from the period between 1968 to 1971. Through that series the artist critized the social and political circumstances in socialist Yugoslavia.
Letter of invitation from the French Foreign Ministry to ...
The Ukrainian Museum-Archives in Cleveland, OH contains a hidden world-class archival collection amassed over the last century. Founded in 1952 by Ukrainian WWII refugees, the materials document the lives and struggles of multiple generations against communism. The museum-archive took on the mission of preserving Ukrainian culture at a time when it was being destroyed in the Soviet Union, assembling a vast collection of books, periodicals, photographs, ephemera, diplomatic papers and other materials that document a century of struggle. This is a unique institution that spans international borders, but is simultaneously integrated into an urban American neighborhood. The collection is based in Cleveland’s historic Tremont neighborhood and attracts partners like the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the National Academy of Sciences in Ukraine, and other institutions interested in digitizing its hidden gems.