Olena Oleksandrivna Lodzynska is the main curator of the Sixtiers Museum in Kyiv. She is a historian, born in 1962, thus she remembers the general political and social climate in which the sixtiers were operating. She was herself involved in oppositionist activity, partly due to a run in with the Soviet authorities in 1982. Both she and her husband were dismissed from university; he for conduct unbecoming a Soviet student (code then for “nationalism”) and she for being married to him. He was implicated in the involvement in an underground organization, uncovered by the state security services. Lodzynska noted that this, in principle, amounted to a group of students getting together informally to discuss interesting topics, nothing more than that. Nonetheless, he was only able to complete his degree after independence. Lodzynska was able to return to her studies after one year, as an official reprimand for political infractions was never written about her. They became members of RUKH—organized first as a civic-political organization called the People's Movement of Ukraine for Reconstruction during Mikhail Gorbachev’s perestroika—and then registered as a political party in 1990, to participate in the first semi-competitive elections held in the Soviet Union. When asked about her relationship to the Soviet regime, Lodzynska responded that it was negative, and that to expound beyond that would take us on a very long detour.
After his release, he could only publish under pseudonyms. He mainly wrote crime novels and light fiction. Only in the 1970s did his situation improve. But when he protested the forced expatriation of Wolf Biermann in 1976, he was classified as a "negative and hostile" author by State Security and in 1978 the second printing of his novel Es geht seinen Gang oder Mühen in unseren Ebenen [It Takes Its Course or Difficulties in Our Plains] was stopped with flimsy reasoning. In 1979 Loest left the Writer's Association and eventually applied to emigrate. He wrote to the GDR Ministry for Culture that he could no longer work as an artist under these circumstances.
In 1981 Loest moved to West Germany, where as chairman of the German Writer's Association, he continued fighting East German cultural policies and censorship. He returned in 1990 after being completely rehabilitated by the GDR’s highest court.
His depiction of the autumn of 1989 in his novel Nikolai Church, later adapted into a film, heavily influenced today’s image of the peaceful revolution in the GDR. Loest received countless awards including Honorary Citizenship of Leipzig (1996), Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (1997), Grand Cross of Merit of Germany (1999) and the German National Prize (2009). He committed suicide in 2013.
- Leipzig , Deutschland
Roger Loewig was an autodidact painter, illustrator, and writer based in Berlin, East and West. Born in Silesia, he spent his youth in occupied Poland until 1945, when he fled to Eastern Germany (first in the Soviet-occupied territory, later GDR). Here he took on vocational training as a teacher for Russian, a profession which he exercised starting 1953. In addition to his teaching position in Russian, German and history, until the beginning of the 1960s, he actively engaged in his creative activities in East Berlin, where he was based. The application to officially join the Union of Artists in 1962, which would grant him the status as a freelance artist in the GDR, was initially denied.
Following the first private exhibition organised in 1963, inspired by the recent political events such as the construction of the Berlin Wall, the artist came under Stasi surveillance. This eventually led to his imprisonment potentially for ten years being accused of 'treacherous propaganda’. The accusation brought against him was motivated by the themes addressed by his artworks, namely to have taken a stand against the Berlin Wall and state organised violence. Loewig was ransomed with the support of the Protestant Church from West Germany after one year, yet remained in the GDR first.
After his release in 1964, the artist fully emerged in his creative activities, however, left Berlin East often for the countryside. He was also prohibited to exercise his teaching activities. It was only in 1965 that Loewig was officially granted the artist status by joining the Union of Artists. Despite that, his first exhibition after the release was organised at the 'Ateliergemeinschaft Erfurt’. This was an exhibition space since 1963 which actively facilitated the collaboration between painters and graphic artists who denied socialist realism as an artistic form of expression. The exhibitions of the atelier have been extensively organised underground in private apartments, banned from the public eye.
Starting the mid-1960s his activity was strongly supported by the close group of friends established in Bonn (1966), who throughout the regime facilitated contacts, private purchases of his artworks and exhibitions in Western Germany and internationally.
Beginning of the 1970s, Loewig's 'exile’ to Berlin West was eventually granted. Based in Berlin West starting 1972, he carried on with his artistic activity, joining the 'Malerpoeten' [Painter Poets] group of artists. The artist, also a poet, published his first prose and literature volumes in Western Germany during the 1980s. Furthermore, the artist explored international opportunities to exhibit the artworks in Europe, both East and West, and in the United States.
Following the fall of the Berlin wall and the German reunification in 1990, Loewig remained skeptical towards political developments. Consequently, he took on numerous travels in Central and Eastern European countries. In 1992 the artist exhibited his lithographs under the name 'Epitafia’ in the State Museum in Auschwitz-Birkenau, being the first German artist to exhibit his artworks in the former concentration camp.
The artist was awarded in October 1997 for his lifetime achievements the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, first category. Roger Loewig died shortly afterward on November fourth in Berlin.
- Berlin, Germany
Mladen Lompar was a Montenegrin poet, essayist, and art critic. He graduated from Art History at the University of Belgrade. From 1984 to 1995 he was the director of the Art Museum of Montenegro in Cetinje. He was removed from his position after refusing to allow the museum to carry paintings stolen from the Croatian battlefield.
Lompar was commissioner of the Second and Third Cetinje Biennale and Vice President of the Doclean Academy of Sciences and Arts, a parable scholars’ academy created in 1998 by academics who found the Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts to be dominated by Serbian nationalism. Lompar was one of the founders of the Montenegrin Society of Independent Writers and the president of the Montenegrin PEN Centre.
The poetry of Mladen Lompar has been translated into many languages and has been presented in several anthologies of contemporary Montenegrin and regional poetry.
Lompar was one of the founders of the Literary Municipality of Cetinje publishing house and creator and editor-in-chief of ARS – Review of Culture, Art and Science during both the original and later series.As his liberal political views, advocacy for national and civil rights, and promotion of avantgarde aesthetics were provocative to both the local communist regime and mentality of the small town of Cetinje, he was labelled by authorities, alongside his colleagues Milorad Popović and Slavko Perovic, as “politically inappropriate” during the 1980s and 1990s. Lompar contributed greatly to the creation of a core of resistance movements that later went on to form the political party Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), as well as anti-war media and alternative cultural organizations.
- Kotor, Montenegro
Marko Lopušina (born 1951) is a Serbian journalist and current affairs writer. As a journalist and editor, he has worked for several newspapers and magazines (Sekundarne sirovine, Zdravo, Intervju, Profil, Nedeljni telegraf, Večernje novosti, Ilustrovana politika). He is known as the author of a number of books on the Serbian diaspora and secret services, and their role in contemporary Serbian politics. He has also systematically researched censorship practices in the former Yugoslavia and published two books on that subject: Crna knjiga - cenzura u Jugoslaviji 1945-91. [Black Book – censorship in Yugoslavia 1945-91] published in 1991, and Crna knjiga – cenzura u Srbiji 1945-2015. [Black book – censorship in Serbia 1945-2015], published in 2015.
- Belgrade, Serbia