Kęstutis Remeika is the deputy director of the Lithuanian Special Archive. He has been working at the archive since 1995, when the archive was founded. Before that, in 1993 he joined the group of archivists established by the Lithuanian government that took charge of the files left in Lithuania by the KGB (the Working Group on Special Archive Files of the Lithuanian Archive Department). Remeika is a key figure in providing archive policy towards the structure of the collection.
As deputy director, Remeika is involved in taking decisions about the structure of the collection. He was not involved in any anti-Soviet activity or opposition to Soviet rule. According to Remeika, it is hard to define what ‘cultural opposition’ means. The notion could include a wide range of activities: from talking in the kitchen while listening to Western radio programmes to participation in anti-Soviet activities. There were only a few people in Lithuania who stood up openly against the regime. The Lithuanian Special Archive does not make any further efforts to find material about cultural opposition: writers and members of the intelligentsia are not subjects of the archive. The work of archives in Lithuania is divided according to the subjects (authors) of documents, and for this reason the Lithuanian Special Archive holds only files on KGB activity.
- Vilnius, 40 Gediminas avenue, 01110 Lithuania
Smiljana Rendić was a Catholic journalist, writer and poet, born in Split on 27 August 1926. From 1933 to 1940, she attended primary school and after that the gymnasium in Split, where she joined the Croatian Catholic Movement before the outbreak of World War II. In 1948, the communist authorities in Split expelled her and her widowed mother from their flat because of the family's opposition to the new regime. In the 1950s, she worked in the factory Jugoplastika in Split and in 1960 moved to Rijeka. There she was employed in the administration of the maritime affairs magazine Pomorstvo, where she worked until forced retirement in 1972.
In Rijeka she also worked for the magazine La voce del popolo. However, after being discovered as a practical believer, she was dismissed from the magazine, as it was under the control of the Communist Party. In 1963, she began collaborating with the bi-weekly newspaper Glas Koncila, the most prominent Catholic publication in socialist Yugoslavia. In the beginning, she published stories with an autobiographical character under the pseudonym Berith (Heb. covenant), in which she narrated her personal life and the lives of her contemporaries at a time of overall atheisation and the erasure of national identity. Also in 1963, she began working as a journalist for the periodical Glasnik sv. Antuna Padovanskog, writing under the pseudonym Vjera Marini.
Due to the article “Izlazak iz genitiva ili drugi hrvatski preporod“ (‘Departure from the genitive or the second Croatian national revival’) published in 1971 in the journal Kritika, she was prosecuted by the communist authorities under Article 118 of the Criminal Code. During her trial in 1972, she was prohibited from appearing in public and writing for a year, and was sentenced to one year in prison. The next year, after an appeal process, Rendić's verdict was commuted by the Supreme Court to a conditional sentence of one year in prison, but she was still punished by a one-year ban on writing and public activity, with mandatory retirement.
As of 1973 she lived as a retired person in Rijeka, but continued her journalistic and literary work primarily in Glas Koncila. Interestingly, at the time of the emergence of the Polish Solidarity Movement at the beginning of the 1980s she was the first journalist who reported on Poland in Croatia and Yugoslavia, where such processes did not suit either the regime or the media under its control.
In 1988 she was granted a special prize by Glas koncila, the ‘Golden Quill’. Although not formally educated, Rendić acquired deep theological knowledge through her intellectual work. It may be said that Rendić was among the most important Croatian Catholic journalists in the second half of the 20th century.
She died in Rijeka on 26 May 1994 at the age of 68.
- Rijeka , Croatia
- Split, Croatia 21000
Andriy Richytsky was the pseudonym for Anatoliy Andriyovych Pisotsky, a Ukrainian politician, journalist, and literary scholar. He was born into a family of comparatively well off peasants, and studied at the Petrovsky agricultural academy in Moscow though he did not finish his fourth year. In the early days of the revolution of 1917, he joined the ranks of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers Party and became the organization's representative in the Ukrainian Central Rada. He maintained key positions despite the vicissitudes of the civil war period and in 1919 helped found the Ukrainian Communist Party, which acted independently of Ukrainian SDWP and also Russian communists.
In 1924, along with other members of the UCP, Richytsky joined the Communist Party of Ukraine (Bolshevik faction), finding common cause with Mykola Skrypnyk and vocally criticizing not only historian and politician Mykhailo Hrushevsky but also the writer Mykola Khvylyovy. From 1925 onward, Richytsky held a variety of editorial positions, taught at the Ukrainian Institute of Marxism-Leninism, and in 1930 began work on the Soviet Ukrainian encyclopaedia. In 1931, he edited what would become a controversial edition of Taras Shevchenko’s Kobzar, illustrated by the artist Vasyl Sedliar. The images included alongside Shevchenko’s poems drew on universal existential issues of the human condition under oppression. Nevertheless it would seem that both Sedliar and Richytsky were keenly aware of the famine raging in the Ukrainian countryside, making the content of the images politically problematic if not subversive. Richytsky was directly involved in grain procurement in Odessa in 1932-1933 and would have seen the crisis unfolding first hand. In June 1933, he was severely reprimanded by the party and he was removed from working on the Soviet Ukrainian encyclopaedia and his post on the editorial board of the paper Bilshovyk Ukrainy. In September 1933, he was arrested for alleged involvment in a Ukrainian military organization and active counterrevolutionary work aimed at toppling Soviet rule in Ukraine. In March 1934, Richytsky and seven others were tried in the same village in Odessa where he had been involved with grain procurement. He was sentenced to death and executed after a failed appeal, while the others were given long sentences in hard labour camps.
- Kyiv City, Kiev, Ukraine 02000
Józef Robakowski (1939) is one of the most significant neo-avant-garde figures in Poland. He was born in a gentry family. In the 1960s he studied history of art and museology on Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, then he moved to Łódź, where he graduated from Direction of Photography and Television Production Department in The National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre. He found art groups Oko (1960), Zero-61 (1961-1969), and Krąg (1965-1967) in Toruń. From 1960 to 1966 he was also a member of the Students' Creative Film Club ‘Pętla’. But his essential group – Workshop of Film Form (1970-1977), affiliated with the film school – was established in Łódź. He has also been a lecturer in the film school, from 1970 till nowadays, with a break in the period of 1981-1995. In 1978, together with his wife Małgorzata Potocka, in their private flat he launched the Exchange Gallery. In the 1980s he participated in Going Dutch Culture activities.
Robakowski from the very beginning of his career endeavoured to set his creativeness in outputs of Polish pre-war and post-war avant-garde, in particular groups Jung Jidysz, a.r., Tytus Czyżewski, Stefan and Franciszka Themersons, Władysław Strzemiński, Katarzyna Kobro, Henryk Stażewski, Witkacy, but also soviet constructivism. He referred equally strong to contemporary international neo-avant-garde, especially Fluxus movement, and other post-conceptual artists who explored new media. His early experiments with the medium of photography with the Zero-61 group in the 1960s unfolded to the inquiry in materiality and structure of film image, which resulted in the conception of the ‘expanded cinema’. At the same time Robakowski studied relations between film and a cameraman’s body, observed traffic outside his window, and documented his own private life: on this basis, the ‘personal cinema’ conception has emerged and was developed in the 1980s. After the martial law Robakowski got interested in the alternative culture, punk bands, street happenings. His attitude during this period was called ‘positive nihilism’. In the 1990s and later Robakowski unwound his conception of ‘energetic art’. Apart from the changes in aesthetic ideas, he was known for an absurd, neo-dadaist sense of humour, a pressure on art and an artist’s autonomy, and astute observation of social phenomena, or even interventions close to the applied art practices. His attitude was shaped by his aversion towards conceptual avant-garde rather than resistance to the socialist authorities. Wiesław Borowski, the influential conceptual theoretician, in his famous essay from 1975 called Robakowski and his colleagues the ‘pseudo-avant-garde’. This pejorative nickname became popular as a synonym of post-conceptual neo-avant-garde movement, which preferred to call itself ‘progressive’ or ‘radical’ artists. Robakowski is still active as an artist, teacher, collector, and commentator of cultural events.
- Łódź , Polska
A classic of Polish photography, known mostly for capturing the atmosphere of Warsaw in the 1950s and 1960s – the everyday life on the streets, the cultural and artistic life, as well as the fashion of the time – in his photoreports, portraits and sessions.
Tadeusz Rolke was born in a well-to-do bourgeois family in Warsaw. His father was an administrative director in the Warsaw Town Hall, a descendant of small-time nobility from Kresy (the easternmost regions of Poland), and was born in Tbilisi. He died in 1932, when his soon was 2.5 years old. His mother, a protestant “German-Jewish bourgeois”, had no education, but secured a post in the administration of the City Council. This, however, did not protect the family from a lower quality of life (Purzyńska Małgorzata 2008).
The Second World War broke out when Rolke was 10, and ended when he was 16. He survived the bombings of Warsaw in 1939, when his family home was destroyed. He joined the underground, clandestine boy scout organization “Szare Szeregi” (Grey Ranks). He took part in the Warsaw Uprising. After its conclusion, like many inhabitants of Warsaw, he was deported to Germany, where he did forced labour in agriculture, as well as dug trenches and anti-tank trenches.
During the war, he came in contact with photography for the first time: in occupied Warsaw, he watched high-quality black-and-white pictures from the front in German propaganda magazines.
Having returned to Poland, he photographed war damage and the reconstruction of Warsaw. In 1949, his application to the University of Warsaw was rejected due to his “bourgeois background”. He worked in office jobs, i.a. in the “Społem” (Together) cooperative, which managed a chain of groceries. He started studying philosophy at the Catholic University of Lublin, but quickly switched to art history.
In 1952, he was arrested and charged with conspiracy to “overthrow the state”. The case started with his friend’s academic lecture on the possibility of synthesizing capitalist and socialist economy – a very controversial issue, due to the association with the economy of Tito’s Yugoslavia, which was insubordinate towards the USSR at the time. As a matter of fact, there was no conspiracy – it was made up by the SB (Security Service). However, after a Stalinist show trial, Rolke was sentenced to 7 years in prison. Overall, he was incarcerated for almost two years, including the time he spent under arrest. He was freed during the amnesty of 1954, but was banned from all university studies.
He found a job in a state-owned phototechnical laboratory and started working as a photographer. Shortly afterwards, he started collaborating with popular, state-sanctioned socio-cultural press: the youth magazine Świat Młodych (World of Youth) and Stolica (The Capital). The latter initially focused on efforts to rebuild Warsaw, but soon shifted its attention to the city’s cultural life. He got his first full-time contract as a photographer at the prestigious Polska monthly – a “showcase for the Polish People’s Republic”, presenting a positive picture of the country’s scientific and cultural achievements, published in five foreign languages and in Polish. This gave him an opportunity to meet journalists from Western Europe and to start publishing in German and Scandinavian press. He also collaborated with Ty i Ja (You and Me) and the famous Cracow-based weekly Przekrój (Cross Section).
In 1966, the avant-garde “Galeria Foksal” was founded. Rolke met its co-founders, art critics Wiesław Borowski and Anka Ptaszkowska, in the '50s, during his studies in Lublin. Rolke associated himself with a group of artists involved in the gallery. Some of them, such as Henryk Stażewski, Tadeusz Kantor, and Edward Krasiński, are among the most acclaimed figures of the art world of that time. He photographed ephemeral artistic events they organized, including pioneering happenings, environments or installations, which are now a part of the history of Polish art. Together with his friend and colleague from the press Eustachy Kossakowski, he was the co-author of the visual documentation of this group's activities. In this period, he also photographed sculptor Alina Szapocznikow at work.
In the following years he also shot pictures of international celebrities, such as Joseph Beuys, Oskar Kokoschka or Gerhard Richter. In Poland, he photographed cultural stalwarts from other disciplines of art, such as director Andrzej Wajda or cult actors – Małgorzata Braunek, Beata Tyszkiewicz, Kalina Jędrusik, Zbigniew Cybulski. Later in his career, he maintained contact with the art world. He shot artists who made their debuts in the 1980s and 1990s – such as Leon Tarasewicz, Edward Dwurnik, Zbigniew Libera or Paweł Althamer – for Western press.
As a result of an antisemitic campaign orchestrated by the communist authorities and the participation of the Polish army in the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, Rolke decided to emigrate. “I could not stand this atmosphere” – he said in an interview in 2008. “This was no longer a country one could live in” – he added (Purzyńska Małgorzata 2008). However, he did not get a passport, as he had been blacklisted due to his contacts with foreigners and a recording of a private conversation made by the SB (Security Service), where he was critical of the authorities. In 1970, he left for an art scholarship in the German Federal Republic and did not return. For 10 years, he lived in Hamburg and married a German woman. As a freelancer, he worked for leading press titles in Western Europe, i.a. Die Zeit, Stern, Der Spiegel, Deutsche Allgemeine Sonntagsblatt, as well as with Art – a prestigious Hamburg-based art magazine (with which he occasionally collaborates to this day). During that time, he created series of photoreports – about the Fischmarkt market in Hamburg, as well as about a commune and addiction therapy centre founded near Hamburg ran by a countercultural organization of former drug addicts.
In the mid-1970s he started visiting Poland, and made photoreports for Western press during the “carnival” of the first “Solidarity” in 1980, although he did not get to the Gdańsk Shipyard and never worked in political photography. After the introduction of martial law on December 13th 1981, he decided to stay in Poland, choosing to migrate in a direction opposite to large groups of Poles at that time. As he said in an interview with Hanna Maria Giza, he was overcome by “inertia”, hence not many photos are left from that time. However, interesting documentation of street clashes between protesters and state Militia was preserved.
In the 1980s, he photographed alternative culture. He shot sessions i.a. with Kora Jackowska and the new wave band Maanam.
In the 1990s and 2000s, he briefly worked for Gazeta Wyborcza, taught at the Faculty of Journalism at the University of Warsaw and at the Warsaw School of Photography. He created series of photographs on the Jewish past of Polish towns, including some that focused on the Hasidic movement: Hasidim and We Were Here. He had many individual exhibitions, documentaries about his work were also made.
- Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland